Arachnobase - A web application that shows the ecological and phenological data obtained from the Database of Spiders in the Czech Republic, containing 114,000 records for 850 species. Ecological features of the habitat that were not a direct part of database are derived from the features of the habitat where individual species were found. The data are further adjusted by frequencies of spider collections on different types of habitat, which provides more realistic information about their real occurrence. At the same time, the system is designed as an interactive online database, allowing the prediction of the occurrence of the species, depending on the entered environmental factors.
ARACHNOBASE: Overviews of complex information about the entire database. These are the absolute numbers of spider collecting times in the course of the year, in different altitudes, according to the method of collection and occurrence in individual habitats.
CATALOGUE: Tree structure family – genus – species, including graphical representation of number of the covered squares.
Display of species: Při potvrzení položky jsou vypsány kompletní údaje o daném druhu.
Comparison of species: When more types of species are chosen, they are displayed in a tight row format.
Display of species: A graphic representation of ecological and phenological data, adjusted by the frequency of collections under given conditions; it is also possible to display the original absolute values. In addition, the accompanying species that occur simultaneously with the given species are stated here.
HABITAT: The expected association of spiders under the given conditions.After the input of data regarding habitat, altitude, time, method of collection and region, the system generates a list of species according to the degree of probability of their occurrence.
Comparison of species: Tight row format allows the input of more species followed by comparison of differences of their occurrence and environmental requirements.
Evaluation and interpretation of the outputs: the deduction of environmental requirements from the features of the habitats within the database of spiders in the Czech Republic is the only solution for obtaining that information. It is therefore a probabilistic inference, the extent of the database, however, gives the presumption to obtain reliable results. When considering the efficiency of the method, the ultimate criterion is the substantiality of results in comparison with results based on specific data. According to the preliminary evaluation, the results of the model are comparable with published faunistic data with specified environmental data. The project is solved by the Faculty of Biomedical Engineering of the Czech Technical University and expects the further development on the basis of a broader discussion of the professional public. Prospects in this sense of word are based particularly on practical comments on the quality of the results and suggestions for inclusion of additional functions.
Processing of the database of spiders in the Czech Republic – the selection of 8 attributes for further evaluation (Species, Altitude, Quadrate, Habitat Code, Date, Male, Female, Method of Collecting). The code of the habitat is further transformed into a table with the corresponding average value of ecological factors and their variability. Estimates of these values were determined by a panel of experts using the 5-degree scale and a Delphi method.
MAP section – the number of species found in individual squares
"ARACHNOBASE" section – – species occurrence per square
Sections "SPECIES" and "COMPARISON" – výskyt druhu v daném kvadrátu
Section "HABITAT" – used for defining the squares: western Bohemia: <59 and <56, >=59 and <55. Moravia: >65 and >61, <=65 and >65 (always geographic latitude/longitude: N/E)
ALTITUDE - Division into four categories according to the altitude. This is a general division of phytogeographical districts: Termophyticum, Mesophyticum, Oreophyticum, Subalpine zone
COLLECTION METHOD - division into four categories, indicating the vertical stratum distribution: ground layer, herb layer, arboricolous. Individual collection covers all three previous floors.
WATER, LIGHT, HEAT, BASE: assignment to the conversion table with the features of the environmental factors. For this purpose, the factors were evaluated in 4 or 5 degrees.
ENVIRONMENT DISTURBANCE: based on the assignment of habitats to evaluate their overall degree of disruption. This category replaces the „Originality“, referred to in the Catalogue of Spiders (2002), which has a slightly modified concept.
TYPE OF HABITAT: classification of habitats in the Database of Spiders in the Czech Republic is based on the publication of Habitats of Slovakia – Růžičková et al. (1996). Their types were then further divided into eight groups within the modified classification, quoted in the Catalogue of Habitats in the Czech Republic - Chytrý et al. (2010).
Representation of values: "Conversion of values" in the "Species” section is based on the index which expresses the ratio of a frequency of the evaluated factor to its total presence in the database. The result is an assessment of the probability of the expected occurrence. This approach makes possible to eliminate the application of uneven activity of arachnologists – more frequent collections on certain habitats, and during some months. The converted values (= probably expected), which express the results of occurrence more realistically, are displayed preferentially.
Application of the conversion adjusted according to the intensity of collecting: The differences in the intensity of collecting in terms of locations and time may significantly affect the final results. For example, a comparison of the data for the height adjustment shows that the species with the equal number of findings in the plain, the uplands and in the mountains is in fact a predominantly mountain species. If the species is collected in the same quantity throughout the year, then it has in fact the winter maximum occurrence.
The accompanying species: While evaluating the data regarding the common occurrence of the species, there is a problem of eurytopic species with abundant occurrence, which modifies image of typical communities. The conversion generates a list of species accompanying species in question typically, e.g. significantly more frequently.
Specific species: Species typical for the given conditions. The typical community of spiders is evaluated after the input of the habitat, time, altitude, methods of collection and the region. The resulting order is adjusted in terms of the frequency of collections within the mentioned factors and also the environmental requirements of the accompanying species.
Phenology: Phenogram creation is based on the information about the date of collection and the number of males and females. In case of collection into traps, the average time of collection into traps is used. The results are adjusted in terms of intensity of collections during individual months.
The history of quantification of the spiders ecology: The first historical efforts to clarify the assessment of the environmental requirements of spiders in the European arachnology appear in the papers of Tretzel, who developed a qualitative categorization of environmental characterization as well as the phenological categorization. Based on the occurrence on individual habitats, Martin then created the quantitative scale, which expresses the relationship of spider species and the water, the light, and stratum. Hanggi and Nentwig submitted the quantification of the occurrence of the species in the 90 observed habitats. Kasal and Hanggi then subsequently created corresponding mathematical models. Harvey et al. finally took advantage of the national British database to create a Web application that displays its contents in the online mode.
E. Tretzel: Zur Ekologie der Spinnen (1952). Sitzung. Physik- Mediz. Societat Erlangen, 75:36-131
E. Tretzel: Reife- und Fortpflanzungszeit bei Spinnen (1954) Z. Morph. Okol. Tiere, 42:634-691 - categorization of environmental requirements and phenological groups
Jan Buchar: Catalogue of Spiders of the Czech Republic (2002) – the database of spiders in the Czech Republic, a semi-quantitative assessment of environmental factors, the introduction of the originality of the habitat
D. Martin: Zur Autoekologie der Spinnen (1991) Arachnol. Mitt. 1: 52-26- "Ecograms" - a numerical quantification of basic environmental factors (water, light, stratum)
A. Hanggi, E. Stockli, W. Nentwig: Habitats of Central European Spiders (1995) : Miscelania faunistica Helvetiae 4, 458 pp. – a graphical representation of the quantification of habitat type, height and stratum
P.Kasal, I.Chvátalová, F. Zbytek: Method for graphic representation of ecological types of spiders (1995) Proc. 15th Eur. Coll. Arachnol., pp. 103-106 - quantification of simultaneous impact of ecological factors
P.Kasal, A.Hanggi: Prediction of spider species occurence (2000). Ecology 19(3): 119-124 - mathematical models of environmental requirements in terms of the occurrence
P.Harvey: http://srs.britishspiders.org.uk/portal.php (2013) - Transfer of the national database into the Internet application